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Teaching Romanticism XXI: Transatlantic Romanticism, part 2

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As part of this ongoing series on Teaching Romanticism we will consider the ways in which we lecture on and discuss individual authors, whether during author-specific modules or broader period surveys. I thought it would be particularly useful to hear about which texts educators use and in what context, whether they place certain poems or prose works against those of other writers, or use contemporary or modern theoretical texts, or something else entirely. For this strand of blog posts I invite academics across the world to share their advice and tips on any aspect that interests them about teaching Romanticism. Many thanks to all of those who answered my call through NASSR-L, The BARS Review, and elsewhere (lightly edited samples are reproduced below with permission of the authors). Please do feel free to contact me with proposals for future subjects. We will be considering a range of writers, canonical and non-canonical alike, in the coming months. This issue was edited by Christopher Stampone.


Elizabeth Bishop (State University of New York at Oswego): Teaching Romantic & Abolitionist Representations of Race to Non-Majors

I have taught several iterations of my course “Black Romanticisms,” which traces representations of racialized subjects in British Romanticism, British Abolitionism, and transatlantic literature. As a 200-level course that fills general education requirements, I routinely teach non-majors with little exposure to poetry and learning gaps across the humanities. Despite these circumstances, by the close of each semester a majority of students are able to produce literary analyses of these texts. I do not accord this outcome to any clever design on my own part but instead to cultivating a space in which students are able to identify familiar themes from their own lives in a literary text that is decidedly foreign. For many students, the socio-political constructions of race that these texts promulgate are so familiar because of the United States’ persistently troubled relationship with racism. These analogues are important entry points which facilitate students’ comprehension of the stakes of a given text.

I open the course with a discussion of Long Eighteenth-Century concepts of race and slavery through Alec Ryrie’s lecture “How We Learned That Slavery Was Wrong,” a concise religious history of Abolitionism, and Peter Kitson’s “Bales of Living Anguish,” which charts Romantic-era theories of race, slavery, and British imperialism. I assign texts that are representative of the diverse groups active in the Abolitionist Campaign (e.g., Evangelicals, Dissenters, Radicals) and also feature scenes of maternal suffering such as Hannah More’s Slavery, A Poem (1788) and The Sorrows of Yamba (1795), Anne Yearsley’s A Poem on the Inhumanity of the Slave Trade (1788), Helen Maria Williams’s Poem on the Bill Lately Passed for Regulating the Slave Trade (1788) and Anna Laetitia Barbauld’s Epistle to William Wilberforce (1791). Students often struggle to adjust to the habits of mind required for the close reading of poetry, and the relative ease with which they are able to identify political rhetoric and the impassioned tropes of sentimentality provides valuable practice before moving on to more advanced texts.

Having developed a familiarity with abolitionist rhetoric we then examine Debbie Lee’s provocative revisionist reading of Wordsworth’s “The Mad Mother” in which she argues that the mother is in fact a woman of color (Slavery and the Romantic Imagination 194-221). She posits that infanticide was employed so frequently by Abolitionist poets that any contemporary reader would have recognized his poem as a part of this discourse, and thus interpolated the mother as a woman of color. Students find her argument intriguing though often disagree in class discussion about her textual analysis and historicist methodology. I step back in these moments to moderate the students’ discussions so that students gain practice debating each other in a critical—and civil—manner.

TR2-1From here we turn to the poetry of the late romantic Felicia Hemans. Like the poets cited above, Hemans depicts women of color who commit suicide or infanticide due to enslavement. Whereas students find Hemans’s politics much harder to identify, due to our semester-long attention to motifs of maternity, they are able to ascertain the differences between her representations and those of other poets. Through discussions of Modern Greece, “The Suliote Mother” and poems from Records of Woman students recognize that Hemans’s poetry diverges from previous work in two important ways: it eschews the racialized rhetoric that dominated abolitionist texts and resists excusing infanticide as a product of maternal madness. Instead her heroines demonstrate a clarity of thought that is not overwrought or sentimentalized but reasoned and sound. By removing the question of mental illness these texts pose an ethical quandary: Under what circumstances is it valid to kill your own child? Is it ever? This discussion introduces students to the ethical dimensions of literature and its ability to challenge the reader’s preconceived notions of the world. While the learning objectives of an English course revolve around proficiency in literary analysis, my students welcome the opportunities for critical self-reflection that the course creates and I believe as an instructor in the liberal arts it is incumbent upon me to cultivate.

Work Cited

  • Kitson, Peter J. “‘Bales of Living Anguish’: Representations of Race and the Slave in Romantic Writing.” ELH 67.2 (2000): 515-537. Web.
  • Lee, Debbie. Slavery and the Romantic Imagination. University of Pennsylvania Press, 2002. Print.
  • Ryrie, Alec. “How We Learned That Slavery Was Wrong.” Gresham College Lecture Series, November 5, 2015, Barnard’s Inn Hall, London, UK.

Further Reading

  • hooks, bell. Teaching to Trangress: Education as the Practice of Freedom Routledge, 1994. Print.
  • Perry, Joshua. “Therapeutic Pedagogy: Thoughts on Integral Professional Formation” University of Puerto Rico Law Review 78.1 (2009): 167–82. Web.

Kevin Hutchings (University of Northern British Columbia): Teaching Transatlantic Romanticism and the Aboriginal Atlantic

In Romantic Indians (2006), Tim Fulford introduced the concept of the “Indian Atlantic,” suggesting that British Romanticism was to some extent conditioned by the writings of European travelers who visited North America’s Aboriginal nations (155). Building on Fulford’s scholarship, I would like to propose a syllabus for a course on transatlantic Romanticism that puts some key examples of nineteenth-century Native American writings into dialogue with selected Romantic texts. Rather than surveying a broad swathe of the Aboriginal Atlantic, I prefer to consider transatlantic exchanges involving particular regions and peoples, since such a focus enables a more particularized pedagogical investigation. This essay focuses on the British colony of Upper Canada and key intercultural exchanges that occurred therein.

Founded in 1791, Upper Canada was a creation of the Romantic period, and, for the Indigenous people of Canada, its colonial legacy is still felt today. To help students appreciate this legacy, I recommend assigning Chapter 1 in the Final Report of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada (2016), which is titled “Colonialism in the Age of Empire” (Truth 9-24). As a study of the history and effects of Canada’s Indian Residential Schools, which were established in the late nineteenth century to assimilate Aboriginal people into mainstream Euro-Canadian society, this report considers the colonization of First Nations as a systematic program of “cultural genocide” (1; see also Hutchings, “Romantic-era Roots”, passim). By situating Canadian colonial history in both an Atlantic and a larger global context, Chapter 1 of the Truth and Reconciliation report provides helpful contexts for the readings I suggest below.

In early nineteenth-century Upper Canada, one of the most celebrated Romantic poets was Thomas Campbell, whose acquaintance and friendship were sought by members of the colonial government, including Chief Justice John Beverley Robinson (whose gushing letter to Campbell is printed in Beattie 2.79-81). Although Campbell’s most famous poem, The Pleasures of Hope (1799), deals with Upper Canada only in passing, it is worth assigning the famous passage that hails “bright Improvement” as a force that will simultaneously tame the Canadian wilderness and transform or eradicate the Indigenous “fiends” who reside along Lake Erie’s northern shores (Part 1, ll. 321-30; Redding 43). A discussion of this passage helpfully sets the stage for a reading of Campbell’s Gertrude of Wyoming (1809), a long Spenserian-stanza poem depicting Mohawk Chief Joseph Brant as a cannibalistic “Monster” (Hutchings, Romantic Ecologies 147). As interesting, perhaps, as the poem itself was the response it incited in Brant’s son, Chief Ahyonwaeghs (John Brant), who, on a diplomatic mission to Britain in 1822, enlisted the services of London lawyer and author Saxe Bannister, whom he had met in Upper Canada, to help him challenge Campbell’s libelous depiction of his father, prompting Campbell to publish an apology in the New Monthly Magazine (Campbell “Letter”).

TR2-2Another of Campbell’s Native American readers was Jane Johnston Schoolcraft, or Bamewawagezhikaquay (Woman of the Sound the Stars Make Rushing through the Sky). Born of an Ojibwe mother and an Irish father whose woodland library housed literary volumes by Campbell, Hannah More, Walter Scott, Lord Byron, Robert Southey, Thomas Moore, Washington Irving, and James Fenimore Cooper (Parker 4, 14), Schoolcraft exemplifies the hybrid forms of transatlantic subjectivity that Fulford examines in Romantic Indians. Although she has been called the “first known American Indian literary writer,” her family “identified with the British, not the Americans” (Parker 1, 12), so her writings can be contextualized as part of Upper Canada’s literary history. Containing approximately fifty poems in English and Ojibwe as well as transcriptions and translations of Ojibwe oral lore, Schoolcraft’s oeuvre articulates a fascinating mixture of Indigenous and Romantic perspectives.

As a counterpart to Schoolcraft, the Ojibwe autobiographer George Copway (Kahgegagahbowh, or Standing Firm) is well worth considering, for his writings also combine Ojibwe and Romantic perspectives, the latter of which can be seen in his self-depiction as a “noble savage,” as well as in his references to such British Romantics as Scott, Byron, Robert Burns, and Robert Southey (see Fulford 280-91; Hutchings, “The nobleness” passim). To give students a taste of Copway’s Ojibwe Romanticism, I suggest assigning the first two chapters of his Recollections of a Forest Life (first published in 1850), where he depicts himself as “one of Nature’s children” (10-11), and where he introduces his discussion of traditional Ojibwe hunting practices with an epigraph from Byron’s “To the Countess of Blessington.”

In order to politicize the syllabus in an overt way, I also recommend the study of selected works by Sir Francis Bond Head, a British Romantic man of letters who briefly governed Upper Canada in the mid-1830s. A member of John Murray’s literary circle, Head not only wrote extensively about the Aboriginal people he encountered during his Canadian sojourn, but he also worked to formulate Indigenous governance policy and impose treaties on the First Nations. To help students appreciate Head’s Romantic sensibility, I recommend assigning Chapter VII of his Canadian memoir The Emigrant (1846), in which he recounts his 1836 canoe voyage to Odaawa Minising (Manitoulin Island) in the northern reaches of Lake Huron. Using the language of picturesque aesthetics to describe the environments he traversed and the Indigenous people he encountered, Head’s narrative culminates in a discussion of the treaty he negotiated with a council of Anishinaabe chiefs (see Corbiere passim; Binnema et al. 121-34), and which he paternalistically hoped would “protect” Indigenous people from the white man’s corrupting influences. This part of the syllabus can be usefully supplemented by the study of Head’s lengthy Quarterly Review article titled “The Red Man,” as well as by a close reading of the Manitoulin Island Treaty, which is still known locally as the “Bond Head Treaty” (Head “Manitoulin”). The Aborigines Protection Society’s devastating critique of Head’s treaty-making also makes for engaging reading (British and Foreign passim).

TR2-3Finally, as a counterpoint to the writings and policy-making of Sir Francis Bond Head, British travel writer Anna Brownell Jameson’s Canadian memoir, Winter Studies and Summer Rambles in Canada (1838), can help to tie up loose ends in the course. Among other things, Jameson criticizes Campbell’s treatment of Chief Joseph Brant in Gertrude of Wyoming (248), engages in a potent critique of Head’s paternalist governance policy (375-8), and quotes Wordsworth’s The Excursion in her critique of assimilationist policy (330-31). She also sheds much light on the life and writings of Jane Johnston Schoolcraft (423-52), with whom she became friends during her travels, and who encouraged her to reconsider negative stereotypes of Indigenous women (427-32). Having been “adopted” into an Ojibwe family under the name “Wah,sàh,ge,wah,nó,quà” or “the woman of the bright foam” (499), Jameson was for a time very much immersed in the Aboriginal Atlantic world. Jameson’s sympathy for First Nations people can be complicated, however, by a consideration of Head’s outraged claim that she upset her Aboriginal travelling companions by taking a skull from an Aboriginal burial ground (Hutchings and Bouchard, passim) – an allegation supported by the late nineteenth-century reminiscences of Louis Solomon and Jean Baptiste Sylvestre, two Métis voyageurs with whom she travelled by canoe during her remarkable journey across the Indigenous territories of Upper Canada (Osborne 135-6, 143).

Works Cited

  • Beattie, William. 1849. Life and Letters of Thomas Campbell. Vol. 2, Harper and Brothers, 1855. Archive.org, https://archive.org/details/lifeandletterst02campgoog.
  • Binnema, Theodore, and Kevin Hutchings. “The Emigrant and the Noble Savage: Sir Francis Bond Head’s Romantic Approach to Aboriginal Policy in Upper Canada, 1836-38.”  Journal of Canadian Studies, vol. 39, no. 1, 2005, pp. 115-38.
  • British and Foreign Aborigines Protection Society. Report on the Indians of Upper Canada. Aborigines Protection Society, 1839. Archive.org, https://archive.org/details/reportonindianso00aboriala.
  • Campbell, Thomas. “Letter to the Mohawk Chief Ahyonwaeghs, Commonly Called John Brant, Esq. of the Grand River, Upper Canada. From Thomas Campbell.” New Monthly Magazine and Literary Journal, no. 4, 1822, pp. 97-101.
  • —. The Complete Poetic Works of Thomas Campbell. Edited by J. Logie Robertson, n.p., 1907. Archive.org, https://archive.org/details/in.ernet.dli.2015.2885 .
  • Copway, George. Recollections of a Forest Life: or, The Life and Travels of Kah-ge-ga-gah-bowh, or George Copway, Chief of the Ojibway Nation. 2nd edition, C. Gilpin, 1851. Archive.org, https://archive.org/details/cihm_44293.
  • Corbiere, Alan Ojiig. “Mookomaanish: The Damned Knife.” Anishinaabewin Niswi: Deep Roots, New Growth, 2012. Edited by Alan Corbiere, Deborah McGregor, and Crystal Migwans, Ojibwe Cultural Foundation, 2013, pp. 55-84.
  • Fulford, Tim. Romantic Indians: Native Americans, British Literature, and Transatlantic Culture 1756-1830, Oxford University Press, 2006.
  • Head, Sir Francis Bond. 1846. The Emigrant. London: John Murray, 1846. Archive.org, https://archive.org/details/emigrant00head_0.
  • —. “The Red Man.” Descriptive Essays Contributed to the Quarterly Review, John Murray, 1857, pp. 307-67. Archive.org, https://archive.org/details/descriptiveessa06headgoog.
  • —. Manitoulin Island Treaty (1836) No. 45. Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada, Treaty Texts – Upper Canada Land Surrenders. Government of Canada, https://www.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca/eng/1370372152585/1370372222012#ucls22.
  • Hutchings, Kevin. “The Nobleness of the Hunter’s Deeds”: Romanticism, Christianity, and Ojibwa Culture in George Copway’s Recollections of a Forest Life.” Native Americans and Anglo-American Culture, 1750-1850: The Indian Atlantic, edited by Tim Fulford and Kevin Hutchings, Cambridge UP, 2009, pp. 217-40.
  • —. Romantic Ecologies and Colonial Cultures in the British Atlantic World 1770-1850. McGill-Queen’s UP, 2009.
  • —. “Cultural Genocide and the First Nations of Upper Canada: Some Romantic-era Roots of Canada’s Residential School System.” European Romantic Review, vol. 27, no. 3, 2016, pp. 301-308.
  • Hutchings, Kevin, and Blake E. Bouchard. “The Grave-Robber and the Paternalist: Anna Jameson and Sir Francis Bond Head among the Anishinaabe Indians.” Romanticism: The Journal of Romantic Culture and Criticism, vol. 18, no. 2, 2012, pp. 165-181.
  • Jameson, Anna Brownell. Winter Studies and Summer Rambles in Canada. McClelland and Stewart, 2008.
  • Osborne, A.C. “The Migration of Voyageurs from Drummond Island to Penetanguishene in 1828.” Ontario Historical Society Papers and Records, no. 3, 1901, pp. 123-66, http://my.tbaytel.net/bmartin/drummond.htm.
  • Redding, Cyrus. Literary Reminiscences and Memoirs of Thomas Campbell. Vol. 1, Charles J. Skeet, 1860. Archive.org, https://archive.org/details/literaryreminis02reddgoog.
  • Schoolcraft, Jane Johnston. The Sound the Stars Make Rushing Through the Sky. Edited by Robert Dale Parker, U of Pennsylvania P, 2007.
  • Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada. The Final Report of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada. Vol. 1., McGill-Queen’s UP, 2015. http://www.myrobust.com/websites/trcinstitution/File/Reports/Volume_1_History_Part_1_English_Web.pdf.

Further Reading

  • Bannister, Saxe. Remarks on the Indians of North America, in a Letter to an Edinburgh Reviewer. Thomas and George Underwood, 1822. Archive.org, https://archive.org/details/cihm_21124.
  • Copway, George. The Traditional History and Characteristic Sketches of the Ojibway Nation. Charles Gilpin, 1850. Archive.org, https://archive.org/details/traditionalhist00copwgoog.
  • Flint, Kate. The Transatlantic Indian, 1776-1930. Princeton UP, 2009.
  • Fulford, Tim, and Kevin Hutchings, editors. Native Americans and Anglo-American Culture, 1750-1850: The Indian Atlantic. Cambridge UP, pp. 217-40.
  • Matthews, Charity. “Romantic Aesthetics, Gender, and Transatlantic Travel in Anna Brownell Jameson’s Winter Studies and Summer Rambles in Canada.” Transatlantic Literary Exchanges 1790-1870: Gender, Race, and Nation, edited by Kevin Hutchings and Julia M. Wright, Ashgate, 2011, pp. 39-59.
  • Smith, Donald. “The Life of George Copway or Kah-ge-ga-gah-bowh (1818-1869) – and a review of his writings.” Journal of Canadian Studies, 23:3 (1998), 5–38.

Deanna P. Koretsky (Spelman College): British Romanticism for a Global Classroom

I often hear university teachers decry students’ desires to “relate” to texts as an assault on intellectual rigor. But to orient students toward neutrality in the name of rigor is to take for granted that what we teach is, itself, neutral. As our field grows ever more aware of and, I hope, resistant to the interlocking systems of global capitalism, hetero-patriarchy, and cultural and political imperialism, teaching Romanticism in the global twenty-first century demands that we interrogate the field’s place in university English departments, not to mention in our master narratives of Euro-American literary history.

Romantic literature was not written for English classrooms, but it has occupied a central place within them since the introduction of English literature into Victorian-era school curricula.  The discipline of English was developed, as Gayatri Spivak reminds us, “to shape the mind of the student so that it can resemble the mind of the so-called implied reader of the literary text, even when that is a historically distanced cultural fiction” (“Burden” 36).  English literary study in the twenty-first century requires that we pull back the ideological veil at the discipline’s core—that is, its inception as “the poor man’s Classics” (Eagleton 23), whereby a so-called Great Tradition was developed to instruct the uncultivated masses. Insofar as British Romanticism has always been at the center of that disciplinary organization, the field now faces especially acute pressure: to either maintain narrow national narratives of literary greatness, or to think (drawing on Paul Gilroy’s deployment of Deleuze in The Black Atlantic) rhizomatically, as part of a much larger “webbed network, between the local and the global” (29). Reading Romanticism in the latter way invites a multiplicity of perspectives into our field because it opens students’ modes of engagement to, yes, being able to “relate” what they read to their lives beyond our classrooms.  Further, it opens avenues of inquiry into a literary period that fiercely probed the status quo, and thus deserves better than to have been institutionalized as a barometer of bourgeois values.

American Studies habitually challenges the liberal humanist values on which the discipline of English was built by emphasizing subjectivity, identity, and the power dynamics involved in knowledge production in its readings of the literary past. But to admit these concepts into British Romanticism—a field that has explicitly turned on liberal humanist mythologies of the universal and the transcendental—is, potentially, to open it up to discomfiting queries: Does the field of British Romanticism need to exist?  Why not consolidate it with the eighteenth or later-nineteenth century (as many Americanists have done with Transcendentalism, British Romanticism’s nearest U.S. counterpart)? While anyone who seriously reads it will recognize that British Romanticism is neither merely an extension of the 18th century nor a prelude to the Victorians, core narratives of Romanticism(s) do need to be revised for the twenty-first century global classroom. Claims to universal values simply do not hold in our era of what is, to my mind, a generally positive shift toward greater recognition of and respect for the complexity of different subject positions in both the production and the consumption of literature.  Indeed, I would argue that what sets Romantic literature apart is precisely not a concentrated outpouring of transcendental poetic “genius,” but rather the social issues against which that outpouring and others were produced—abolition, women’s rights, animal rights, the revolutions in America, France, Haiti, etc.  Within such an orientation, the prototypically white male transcendental genius becomes one strong response to a period of intense social and epistemological upheaval, rather than its defining mythology. Decentering the authority of the male Romantic Individual enriches our collective understanding of, among other things, the global history of social inequality, and it also encourages different student demographics to want to learn more about it.

TR2 4Mary Wollstonecraft provides a useful example of how orienting students away from deeply entrenched frameworks associated with Romanticism opens exciting new organizing questions. Traditionally hailed as among the earliest modern feminists, Wollstonecraft also exemplifies the myopia of white liberal feminism—its denial of the experiences of, among others, women of color, through its claims of total representation under the sign of “woman.” In this sense, if Wollstonecraft was, indeed, one of the mothers of modern feminism, she was also one of its greatest offenders. When I teach Wollstonecraft, I foreground her discursive association of the struggles of middle class English women with colonial slavery: both the well-known, such as her rhetorically analogizing the struggles of middle class white women to those of enslaved Africans in A Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792), and the more obscure, such as her racialized characterization of Jemima in Maria, or the Wrongs of Woman (1798). In calling attention to what many would today consider Wollstonecraft’s racial insensitivity, I challenge students to think seriously about whether and why we ought to read her. Beyond easy truisms of learning from history’s mistakes, I ask students to critique the narrative of Wollstonecraft’s descent into oblivion—the result of her husband’s revelation of salacious details in her private life that seemed to undermine the masculine ideal of rationality she espoused in her philosophical writing—and her subsequent recovery by the feminist projects of the 1970s and 1980s. In comparing the critical narratives of her decline and her “rediscovery,” we find that, beyond the historical significance of her writing itself, the figure of Wollstonecraft is used to argue around the binary of masculine/feminine, while the racial pressures at the core of her writings go virtually unexplored. One could map similar trajectories with any number of Romantic-era writers: Maria Edgeworth, Mary Shelley, Jane Austen. Here emerges a lesson about both feminism and Romanticism as academic constructs: that to “historicize” requires reading texts not only in their own contexts, but also within subsequent disciplinary narratives of cultural value or lack thereof.

Of course, emphasizing Romanticism’s political interests will not help us to solve socio-political problems that trouble our post-colonial era—Wordsworth, Spivak reminds us, “did not care about the subaltern. . .[he] had merely used them” (“Double Bind” 113). But foregrounding Romanticism’s role in creating those problems invites students to question how epistemological structures enable social hierarchies, and in so doing, it encourages a long view of systemic forms of oppression that may otherwise seem uniquely contemporary.

Works Cited

  • Eagleton, Terry. Literary Theory: An Introduction. Minneapolis: The University of Minnesota Press, 1996. Print.
  • Gilroy, Paul. The Black Atlantic: Modernity and Double-Consciousness. London: Verso, 1993. Print.
  • Spivak, Gayatri Chakravorty. “The Burden of English.” In An Aesthetic Education in the Era of Globalization. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2012. 35-56. Print.
  • —. “The Double Bind Starts to Kick In.” In An Aesthetic Education in the Era of Globalization. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2012. 97-118. Print.

Further Reading

  • Aravamudan, Srinivas. Tropicopolitans: Colonialism and Agency, 1688-1804. Durham: Duke University Press, 1999. Print.
  • Baucom, Ian. Spectres of the Atlantic: Finance Capital, Slavery, and the Philosophy of History. Durham: Duke University Press, 2005. Print.
  • Ferguson, Moira. Colonialism and Gender Relations from Mary Wollstonecraft to Jamaica Kincaid: East Caribbean Connections. New York: Columbia University Press, 1994. Print.
  • —. Subject to Others: British Women Writers and Colonial Slavery, 1670-1834. New York: Routledge, 1992. Print.
  • Gikandi, Simon. Slavery and the Culture of Taste. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2001. Print.
  • Gottlieb, Evan (ed). Global Romanticism: Origins, Orientations, Engagements, 1760-1820. Lewisburg: Bucknell University Press, 2015. Print.
  • —. Romantic Globalism: British Literature and Modern World Order, 1750-1830. The Ohio State University Press, 2014. Print.
  • hooks, bell. Ain’t I a Woman? Black Women and Feminism. Boston: South End Press, 1981.
  • —. Feminist Theory: From Margin to Center. Boston: South End Press, 1984. Print.
  • Makdisi, Saree. Making England Western: Occidentalism, Race and Imperial Culture. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2014. Print.
  • Youngquist, Paul, ed. Race, Romanticism, and the Atlantic. Farnham: Ashgate, 2013. Print.

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